Parfit could reply that continuity might not suffice for special care. Whereas, intellectual pursuits give long term happiness because provide the individual with constant opportunities throughout the years to improve his life, by benefiting from accruing knowledge.
If he has consistently found Sidgwick's intuitionism hard to swallow, he has at least also found in it a clear recognition of the importance of metaethics to ethics, which was more than one could find in Rawls, whose metaethical anti-realism was, according to Brink, misguidedly kept hidden in the closet.
InUrmson published an influential article  arguing that Mill justified rules on utilitarian principles. And if the fool, or the pig, are of a different opinion, it is because they only know their own side of the question…  Mill argues that if people who are "competently acquainted" with two pleasures show a decided preference for one even if it be accompanied by more discontent and "would not resign it for any quantity of the other", then it is legitimate to regard that pleasure as being superior in quality.
The former are those "manifested by his observed behaviour, including preferences possibly based on erroneous factual beliefs[ clarification needed ], or on careless logical analysis, or on strong emotions that at the moment greatly hinder rational choice" whereas the latter are "the preferences he would have if he had all the relevant factual information, always reasoned with the greatest possible care, and were in a state of mind most conducive to rational choice.
For a very different argument to show again that an alternative to morality is less minimal than expected — directed more at the instrumental theory than rational egoism — see Korsgaard The ideas of Socrates c. The horizontal axis would need to be specified in that or some other way to be understandable.
It is based on a belief that reason is the final authority for morality. Another reply to the arbitrariness worry is to claim that certain distinctions just are non-arbitrary.
One reply is to argue that non-arbitrary distinctions can be made by one's preferences. One might cite our most confident judgments about rational action and claim that rational egoism best fits these.
For example, he speaks about the goodness and badness of worlds on page In theory and in practice, Utilitarianism has continued to be influential, with the work of Bentham and Mill proving to be of the greatest importance and interest.
Mill made a distinction between happiness and sheer sensual pleasure. As an intellectual trajectory, Brink's work has thus seemingly fallen together rather nicely, appearing as a concerted effort to rehabilitate utilitarianism in large part through rehabilitating its metaethics and metaethics generally.
The recurrent theme in the views of the better-known Sophists, such as Protagoras, Antiphon c.
I deny that others ought to maximize my good they should maximize their own goods. Moreover, what if we are not capable of reasoning well? One issue concerns how much ethical egoism differs in content from standard moral theories. Criticisms[ edit ] Because utilitarianism is not a single theory but a cluster of related theories that have been developed over two hundred years, criticisms can be made for different reasons and have different targets.Compare and contrast the two teleological philosophies: egoism and utilitarianism.
Include a discussion of the bases that each type uses to evaluate the morality of activities. 3. Virtue ethics is currently one of three major approaches in normative ethics. It may, initially, be identified as the one that emphasizes the virtues, or moral character, in contrast to the approach that emphasizes duties or rules (deontology) or that emphasizes the consequences of actions (consequentialism).
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Professionally written essays on this topic: Ethical Egoism versus Virtue Ethics Rebuttal to James Rachels. all the same species, we are all precisely equal. Utilitarianism Ethics Ethics essay – Utilitarianism Explain the main differences between the utilitarianism of Bentham and that of Mill.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that looks at the concept of `utility`, or the usefulness of actions. Two of the most famous Utilitarians were Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill; Bentham was the first to introduce the theory, and his views were more.Download